What types of chargers are available for electric vehicles


What types of chargers are available for electric vehicles

The acceptance of new energy cars is getting higher and higher, new energy cars are more and more, new energy electric cars reduce the consumption of fuel to a certain extent, and the use of electric cars cost less, in the charging pile above the full charge can run about 400 km, just need about 40 yuan. So what kinds of electric car charging linker are there?

There are six major EV charging connector labels in the world.
6. New generation ChaoJi charging system

1. Combo

The Combo socket allows for both slow and fast charging of electric vehicles and is currently the most widely used socket type in Europe, including Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Ford, GM, Porsche, and Volkswagen all configured with charging interfaces developed by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers).

On October 2, 2012, the SAE J1772 draft revision, voted by the SAE committee members, became the only official DC charging standard in the world. The core of the standard for DC fast charging, based on the J1772 revision, is the Combo Connector.

The previous version of the standard (developed in 2010) specified the specifications for the base J1772 connector for AC charging at a lower level (AC Level 1 for 120V and Level 2 for 240V). This basic connector is widely used today and is compatible with the Nissan LEAF, Chevrolet Volt and Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric vehicles. The new version of the J1772 standard developed in 2012, the Combo Connector, in addition to all the original features, has two additional pins for DC fast charging, but is not compatible with older EVs currently in production.

Pros: The biggest benefit of the Combo Connector is that future automakers can adopt a socket on their new models, not only for the first generation of the smaller sized basic AC connector, but also for the second generation of the larger sized Combo Connector, which can provide both DC and AC currents for charging at two different speeds, respectively.

Disadvantage: Fast charging mode requires a charging station to provide up to 500 volts and 200 amps of current.

2. Tesla

Tesla has its own charging standard, claiming to be able to charge up to 300km in 30 minutes. Therefore, the maximum capacity of the charging socket can be 120kw and the maximum current can be 80A.

At present, Tesla has 908 Supercharging stations in the United States. In order to enter China, Tesla has also established 7 Supercharger stations in China, 3 in Shanghai, 2 in Beijing, 1 in Hangzhou and 1 in Shenzhen. In addition, in order to better integrate into each region, Tesla plans to give up control of charging standards and adopt the national standards of each country, which it has so implemented in China.

Advantages: advanced technology and high charging efficiency.

Disadvantages: contrary to the national standard of each country, it is difficult to improve sales without compromise; the charging efficiency will be discounted after compromise, which is in a dilemma.
Recommend an adapter for auxiliary chargingCCS1 To TPC Adapter/CCS1 To Tesla Adapter

3. CCS

In order to change the status quo of the confusing charging interface standard, the eight major American and German manufacturers Ford, GM, Chrysler, Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen and Porsche released the "Combined Charging System" in 2012. "The "Combined Charging System" (CCS) is the standard.

"CCS unifies all existing charging interfaces so that a single interface can be used for single-phase AC charging, fast three-phase AC charging, home DC charging and super-speed DC charging.

AE has selected the combined charging system as its standard, and in addition to SAE, the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) has announced that it has chosen the combined charging system as the DC/AC charging interface for all plug-in electric vehicles sold in Europe starting in 2017. Since Germany and China harmonized their EV charging standards last year, China has joined this European and American camp, presenting an unprecedented opportunity for EV development in China. The Zeno 1E, Audi A3e-tron, BAIC E150EV, BMW i3, Tenshi, Volkswagen e-up, Changan EV and SmartEV all belong to the "CCS" standard camp.

Pros: BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen, the three German automakers, will increase their investment in EVs in China, and the CCS standard may be more favorable to China.

Cons: EVs that support the CCS standard will either have low sales volumes or will only be available for sale.

4. CHAdeMO

CHAdeMO is the abbreviation of CHArge de Move, a CHAdeMO socket supported by Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors in Japan, etc. CHAdeMO translates from Japanese to mean "short charging time like a tea break". This DC fast charging socket can provide a maximum charging capacity of 50kw.

Electric vehicle models that support this charging standard include: Nissan LEAF, Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid, Citroen C-ZERO, Peugeot iON, Citroen Berlingo, Peugeot Partner, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Mitsubishi MINICAB-MiEV, Mitsubishi MINICAB-MiEV truck, Honda Fit Electric, Mazda DEMIOEV, Subaru Stella plug-in hybrid, Nissan eEV200, etc. It should be noted here that both the Nissan LEAF and Mitsubishi i-MiEV EVs have two different sockets for charging, one for the base J1772 connector, the Combo connector introduced in Part 1, and the other for the local Japanese CHAdeMO standard connector.

The fast charging method used by CHAdeMO is shown in the figure, and the current is controlled by the CAN bus signal of the car. That is, while monitoring the battery status, the current value required for charging is calculated in real time and a notification is sent to the charger through the communication line; the fast charger receives the current command from the car in time and provides the current at the specified value.

By monitoring the battery condition while controlling the current in real time through the battery management system, all functions required for fast and safe charging are fully realized, ensuring that charging is not limited by battery versatility. In Japan, 1,154 fast chargers installed in accordance with the CHAdeMO standard are in operation. In the United States, CHAdeMO charging stations have also been widely "spread", with the latest data from the U.S. Department of Energy showing that there are 1,344 CHAdeMO AC fast charging stations in the United States.

Benefits: In addition to the data control line, CHAdeMO also uses the CAN bus as the communication interface, which has high communication stability and reliability due to its superior noise immunity and high error detection capability. Its good charging safety record has been recognized by the industry.

Disadvantages: CHAdeMO was originally designed with a charging output of 100 kW, and the connector is very bulky, but the output power in the charging car is only 50 kW.

5. GB/T20234

In 2006, China issued the "Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle coupers and vehicle inlets for conductive charging of electric vehicles
(GB/T20234-2006), a national standard that specifies in detail how to classify the connections for charging currents of 16A, 32A, 250A AC and 400A DC, drawing mainly on the standard proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 2003, but this standard does not specify the number of connection pins, physical dimensions and interface definitions for charging interfaces.

In 2011, China also launched GB/T20234-2011 recommended standard, replacing part of GB/T20234-2006, which stipulates: AC rated voltage not exceeding 690V, frequency 50Hz, rated current not exceeding 250A; DC rated voltage not exceeding 1000V, rated current not exceeding 400A.

Advantages: compared to the 2006 version of the national standard for more detailed calibration of charging interface parameters.

Disadvantages: the standard is still not perfect. In addition, it is only a recommended standard, and is not mandatory.
  1. New generation of ChaoJi charging system
In 2020, China Electricity Council and CHAdeMO protocol will jointly launch the research of ChaoJi industrialization development route and release the White Paper on ChaoJi Conductive Charging Technology for Electric Vehicles and CHAdeMO 3.0 standard respectively.

ChaoJi charging system can realize forward compatibility and backward compatibility. A new control guiding circuit scheme is developed, and a hard node signal design is added, so that when a fault occurs, the counterpart is quickly notified using the signal volume to ensure charging safety in a timely and quick response. The safety model of the whole system is established to optimize the insulation monitoring performance and clarify a series of safety issues such as I2t, y capacitance, PE wire selection, maximum short-circuit capacity, PE disconnection, etc. At the same time, the thermal management system is re-evaluated and redesigned, and a test method for the charging connection device is proposed.

ChaoJi charging interface adopts 7-pin end face design scheme with voltage level up to 1000 (1500) V and maximum current up to 600 A. ChaoJi charging interface is designed to reduce the overall size, optimize the fit tolerance, reduce the power terminal size and meet the IPXXB safety requirements. It is also designed to plug and unplug the physical guide, deepening the front-end guide insertion depth of the socket to meet ergonomic requirements.

ChaoJi charging system is not simply a high-power charging interface, it is a systematic solution for DC charging of electric vehicles, including the design and compatibility of control guide circuits, communication protocols, connection devices, safety of the charging system, thermal management under high-power conditions, etc. ChaoJi charging system is a unified solution for the world, so that the same electric vehicle in different countries can be applied to The charging system of the corresponding country.


Today's new energy vehicles on the market because of the differences in brands, the applicable charging equipment standards are not the same, a single type of charging connector structure can not meet all models. And the technology in the field of new energy vehicles is still in the process of maturity, many car manufacturers of charging piles and charging connection system in the practical application, environmental aging and other aspects are still facing unstable product design, safety hazards, charging anomalies, incompatible car piles, the lack of testing standards and other problems.

Nowadays, car companies in all countries have gradually realized that "standard" is the key factor to the development prospect of electric vehicles. In recent years, global charging standards have gradually moved from "diversity" to "centralization". But to truly realize the unification of charging standards, in addition to interface standards, but also need current communication standards, the former is about whether the connector fits, the latter affects the plug inserted when the power can be. Electric vehicle charging standard unification needs to be well thought out, car companies and governments need to further "liberalize the posture", electric vehicles may have a future.